A GLAMORGAN CHRONOLOGY

The following chronology covers the main elements of the history of Glamorgan mainly for the period up to 1960 with a few later events. It is intended to be of use to people researching their family history in the area, in order to provide a background to their research and maybe some pointers as to why their ancestors lived where they did or moved in or out of the area. It includes the dates of foundation of many of the main organisations in the county, the opening of older churches (but not the original parish churches) & chapels (mainly before 1850), Theatres, Cinemas, Old Inns & Hotels & Industrial Companies. I realise that it is not exhaustive and undoubtedly people who know the county will find that things that they might have included are not in my list. If anyone wants anything added I shall be pleased to consider it if they can give me the details. It is my hope that I will, in any case, be able to make additions in time.

The chronology can be read in conjunction with my Cardiff & Vale Chronology, and some events will be found in both.

A Wales timeline is already available via the Glamorgan Help pages and I have produced a Chronology of British History which is available on my website.

In order to find a specific event without reading through the whole list please use the "find" facility of your browser. In this way you should be able to find any references to a particular year or subject.

THE INDEX - PERIOD UP TO 1699

Abt 75 = Roman fort established at Cardiff during the conquest of the Silures of South East Wales as one of the frontier posts linked to the Roman Legionary base at Caerleon, Mon. Followed by the establishment of a Roman civil community.

Abt 75 = Roman Auxiliary Fort established at Neath (Nidum)

Abt 78 = Roman Fort established at Lougher (Leucarum)

Abt 78 = Roman Auxiliary Fort built at Coelbren

Abt 110 = Roman Auxiliary Fort built at Gelligaer

Abt 120 = Roman Fort at Neath re-built in stone (Abandoned c.150)

Abt 300 = The original Roman fortress replaced by a more substantial stone-built fort at Cardiff to meet the menace of Irish raiders

Abt 380s = Romans abandoned Cardiff as part of their recall of troops to the Continent to defend the Empire against the Germanic tribes

Abt 500 = Kingdom of Glywyseg (Glamorgan) established by "Glywys, a descendant of Maxen Wledig/Roman Emperor Maximus"

Abt 500 = St.Illtyd founded a monastic church at Llantwit Major

10th century = Viking raids on Bristol Channel coasts. Establishment of Norse trading posts.

974 = death of Morgan Mwynfawr, King of Glywyseg. Kingdom became known as Morgannwg after King Morgan

1081 = William I of England led an army through South Wales and probably erected temporary defences at Cardiff on the site of the Roman fort.

1091 = Robert FitzHamon, Lord of Gloucester led an army into South Wales and built a new "motte" or mound 40 feet high to serve as the Keep of a new castle at Cardiff. Iestyn ap Gwrgan, last King of Morgannwg defeated.

1091 = Establishment of the Norman Lordship of Cardiff by Robert FitzHamon by right of conquest as a Marcher Lord ie FitzHamon assumed the Kingly rights of Iestyn ap Gwrgan and did not hold Glamorgan as a fief of the English King. FitzHamon granted various fiefs to his knights mainly in the Vale of Glamorgan. (eg Dinas Powis; Wenvoe & Sully; St.Fagans; Cogan; Wrinston & St.Nicholas; Penmark; St.Athan, Talyfan )

1091 = Welsh lords continued to hold the upland areas of Glamorgan, semi- autonomously, as a continuation of the Kingdom of Morgannwg, paying fealty to the Norman Lord of Glamorgan

Abt 1100 = Ogmore Castle built by de Londres family

Abt 1100 = Fonmon Castle built

1106 = Swansea Castle built by Henry de Newburgh (Beaumont), Earl of Warwick & first Norman Lord of Gower

1106 = Founding of Newcastle (Castle near Bridgend)

1106 = Founding of Talybont Castle, near Pontardulais by Henry de Villers

1107 = Death of Robert FitzHamon (Buried Tewksbury Abbey)

1107 = Mabel FitzHamon inherited Glamorgan

By 1116 = Oystermouth Castle, Gower chief residence of the Lords of Gower

1116 = William de Londres built a church at Ewenny and gave it to St.Peter's Abbey, Gloucester thus commencing Ewenny Priory

Abt 1120 = Neath Castle built by Robert of Gloucester, Lord of Glamorgan

1121 = Robert the Consul, Earl of Gloucester, illigitimate son of King Henry I, became Lord of Glamorgan as husband of Mabel FitzHamon

1120s = Kenfig Castle established by Robert of Gloucester, Lord of Glamorgan

1126 = Robert of Normandy brother of King Henry I imprisoned at Cardiff Castle

1129 = Richard de Granville granted 8000 acres at Neath to the Abbey of Savigny, Normandy for the establishment of Neath Abbey

1134 = Robert of Normandy died at Cardiff Castle (Buried St.Peter's, Gloucester)

1139 = Geoffrey of Monmouth wrote Histories of the Kings of Britain

1147 = Robert the Consul, Lord of Glamorgan died (Buried St.James', Bristol)

1147 = William of Gloucester (son of Robert the Consul) became Lord of Glamorgan

1147 = Geoffrey of Monmouth became Archdeacon of Llandaff

1147 = Margam Abbey founded when Robert of Gloucester, Lord of Glamorgan granted land at Margam to St.Bernard's Abbey, Clairevaux, Normandy for the founding of a Cistercian Monastery

1152 = Geoffrey of Monmouth appointed Bishop of St.Asaph

1155 = Geoffrey of Monmouth died

1158 = Ifor Bach, Lord of Senghenydd attacked Cardiff Castle and carried off William of Gloucester, Lord of Glamorgan & his wife

Abt 1160 = Swansea Chartered a Borough

1169 = Richard de Clare "Strongbow" Lord of Lower Gwent, accompanied by many Glamorgan knights, invaded Ireland

1180 = Coity Castle buillt

1183 = Kenfig & Cardiff put to flames and Cardiff & Newport Castles damaged by attack by the native Welsh

1183 = William of Gloucester died Lordship of Glamorgan passed to King John who was married to one of the heirs of William

1188 = Archbishop Baldwin preaches the Crusade on Llandaff Green

1205 = Grant of a market and fair at Llandaff by King John

1217 = Gilbert de Clare I became Lord of Glamorgan (nephew of Isabel of Gloucester, heir of William of Gloucester & divorced wife of King John)

1230 = Gilbert de Clare I died

1230 = Richard de Clare became Lord of Glamorgan

1233 = Revolt of Llewelyn the Great, Richard the Marshal, Richard Siward and other English Barons

15 Oct 1233 = Richard the Marshal attacked Cardiff Castle

1242 = Black Friars, Cardiff built by the Dominican Monks

1245 = Richard Siward outlawed

1246 = Llantrisant Castle built by Richard de Clare, Lord of Glamorgan

1248 = earliest known reference to use of coal in Wales at Neath

1254 = Borough of Cowbridge established by Richard de Clare, Lord of Glamorgan

1261 = Iron ore being mined at Penyfai, Bridgend & near Llantrisant

1262 = Richard de Clare died

1262 = Gilbert de Clare II became Lord of Glamorgan

1266 = Gilbert de Clare II defeated the Welsh ruler of Senghenydd and took over his territory

1268 = Caerphilly Castle built by Gilbert de Clare

1280 = Gilbert de Clare endowed the Grey Friars (Franciscan) Monastery , Cardiff

1282/3 = Welsh independence came to an end

1284 = Visit of King Edward I to Oystermouth Castle, Gower

1287 = Swansea ravaged by Rhys ap Maredudd

1288 = Morlais Castle, Merthyr Tydfil built by Gilbert de Clare II (completed 1294)

1294 = Rebellion of the Glamorgan Welsh

1294 = Glamorgan Welsh attack Cardiff Castle

1295 = Morlais Castle, Merthyr Tydfil attacked by the Welsh & put permanently out of action

1295 = Gilbert de Clare II died

1295 = Gilbert de Clare III became Lord of Glamorgan

Abt 1304 = Weobley Castle, Gower built by de la Bere family

1312 = Gilbert de Clare III fortified St.Quentin's Castle, Llanblethian

1314 = Gilbert de Clare III killed at Battle of Bannockburn

1314 = Hugh le Despenser became Lord of Glamorgan

1315 = Revolt of Llewelyn Bren

1315 = Llewelyn Bren attacked Cardiff Castle

1318 = Llewelyn Bren executed as a traitor at Cardiff

1321 = Cardiff Castle captured by the Lord of the March

4 March 1323 = Patent issued to the Gild of Cordwainers & Glovers of Cardiff

1324 = First Royal Charter, by King Edward II, to Cardiff Guild of Cordwainers

1327 = Cardiff and Carmarthen declared Staple Ports

1331 = Lordship of Gower passed to John de Mowbray and was henceforward held by absentee lords

1332 = Hospital of the Blessed St.David built at Swansea by Henry de Gower, Bishop of St.Davids

1361 = Black Death ravaged Cardiff

1369 = Black Death ravaged Cardiff for a 2nd time

1404 = Owain Glyndwr captured Cardiff Castle

1470 = Sir David Matthew acquired the manor of Llandaff

1473 = St.John's Church tower built (Cardiff)

22 Aug 1485 = Battle of Bosworth Field (Leicestershire) fought between the supporters of Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond (Lancastrian) and those of King Richard III Crookback (Yorkist). Many Welsh nobles, gentry and peasantry served in the army of Henry Tudor. Richard slain in battle and the Tudor dynasty established on the English throne.

Abt 1530 = Llanmihangel Place built by James Thomas

Abt 1530 = Llancaiach Fawr (house) built by David Prichard

1531 = Iron ore discovered on the Kings lands at Llantrisant

1536 = Act of Suppression - Dissolution of the Monastaries

1536 = Union of England and Wales (Act of Union)

24 August 1536 = Sir Rice Mansel took possesison of Margam Abbey on behalf of the King.

February 1537 = Sir Rice Mansel granted a 21 year lease on Margam Abbey

1539 = St.Mary's Church, Cardiff transferred from Tewksbury Abbey to Gloucester Cathedral

June 1540 = Sir Rice Mansel bought Margam Abbey Estate

1542 = Cardiff became Free Borough

1543 = The manor of Penarth passed to the Dean & Chapter of Bristol

1542 = Sir Richard Williams alias Cromwell purchased Neath Abbey after the dissolution and started the enlargement of the property into a mansion for his family

19 Apr 1544 = Sir George Herbert bought the manor of Cogan

10 May 1544 = Edward Ferrers, Lord Clynton bought the manor of Llandough East

1546 = Sir George Herbert bought the Cardiff property of Tewksbury Abbey including the Grey Friars buildings in Cardiff.

1550 = Iron ore mines at Llantrisant granted to Sir William Herbert

Abt 1550 = haematite ore discovered at Little Garth, near Pentyrch and Draethen near Machen, Mon.

7 May 1550 = Cardiff granted to William Herbert, Earl of Pembroke, by King Edward VI

Bef 1551 = Plas Llantrithyd built for John Basset

10 Oct 1551 = William Herbert created Baron Herbert of Cardiff

1552 = Sir Rice Mansel built a house on the site of Margam Abbey

Mar 1555 = Martyrdom of Rawlins White for his protestant beliefs during the Marian persecutions

1557 = Llanishen & Lisvane Churches sold by Tewkesbury Abbey to Roger Kemeys of Cefn Mably.for 120.

Abt 1559 = Wales incorporated into the English Customs system

1559 = Sir Edward Mansel inherited Oxwich Castle, Gower and started its re- modelling.

1563 = William Morgan of Llantarnam, Mon bought the Manor of Roath Keynsham in Cardiff

1570 = Congress of Bards held in Cardiff Castle under patronage of Sir William Herbert

Abt 1578 = Sir William Herbert built a "sumptuous" house on the Grey Friars site in Cardiff (Herbert House)

1580s = Sir Robert Sidney set up ironworks at Llanharry, Llantrisant, Angleton & Coity

1583 = The Van (house), Caerphilly built for Thomas Lewis

1589 = Patent issued to the Gild of Cordwainers & Glovers of Cadiff (in confirmation of the 1323 patent)

1589 = Angelton Blast Furnace, Bridgend started

Abt 1596 = St.John's Church, Cardiff becomes a separate parish from St.Mary's

Abt 1596 = Dr. John Gibbon built St.Fagans Castle

Abt 1596 = Sutton (House), Llandow built by Edward Turberville

1597 = Edmund Matthew forging ordnance at Pentyrch Works

1598 = Old Place, Llantwit Major built by Edward Van

By 1600 = Neath Abbey bought by Sir John Herbert from Williams/Cromwell family

By about 1600 = Neath was the main copper smelting area in Britain. As a result Neath became Wales' first industrial town

Abt 1600 = St.Margaret's Church, Roath became a parish church in its own right, rather than a chapelry of St.Mary's, Cardiff

1600 = Edmund Matthew leased Pentyrch Iron Works to Peter Samyne & Robert Cantrell

1603 = Lease of Pentyrch Iron Works to Peter Samyne alone

Jul 1608 = Charter declared Cardiff a free town

1609 = Sir Edward Stradling of St.Donats died having started the establishment of Cowbridge Grammar School

Abt 1610 = Nottage Court, Newton Nottage built by Robert Lougher

Abt 1610 = Sir John Stradling of St.Donats completed the establishment of Cowbridge Grammar School. Walter Stradling (a relative) became Master of the school

1612 = Thomas Button of Worlton, Glam. commissioned by the Crown to explore the North West Passage to China

Abt 1613/4 = Piracy in the Bristol Channel brought under control (temporarily) by the sending of ships of war into the channel. Previously Cardiff had been renowned as a place that harboured pirates and since the 13th century the whole Bristol Channel had been frequented by pirates.

1616 = Old Pentyrch Iron Furnace demolished because Peter Samyne had ignored a notice to stop casting ordnance (which was thought to be finding its way to Spain)

1616 = Sir Edward Lewis of the Van, Caerphilly bought St.Fagans Castle

Abt 1620 - 1660 = Barbary/Moorish pirates active in the Bristol Channel

1625 = Tongwynlais Iron Furnace in operation

1626 = Ruperra Castle built by Sir Thomas Morgan

1634 = William Erbery, Vicar of St.Mary's, Cardiff & his curate, Walter Cradock reported to Archbishop Laund (Canterbury for "preaching schismatically and dangerously, to the people"

1634 = William Erbery, Vicar of St.Mary's, Cardiff admonished by the Bishop of Llandaff

1634 = Walter Cradock, Curate of St.Mary's, Cardiff "a bold, ignorant fellow" suspended

1636 = William Erbery, Vicar of St.Mary's, Cardiff tried before the High Commission Court for his "non-conformity"

1638 = William Erbery resigned his living as Vicar of St.Mary's, Cardiff and became an itinerant preacher and Chaplain to the Parliamentary Forces in London.

1638 = William Wroth established the first Non-Conformist Chapel in Wales at Llanvaches, Mon.

23 October 1642 = Miles Matthew of Llandaff in command of the Life Guards carried the banner of the King at the Battle of Edgehill and assisted him in his escape.

27 July 1645 = King Charles I (following defeated at Battle of Naseby ) came to South Wales to seek refuge and rally support, staying at Ruperra Castle.

29 July 1645 = King Charles II came to Cardiff to seek assistance from Glamorgan, but met with little enthusiasm since it was considered that his cause was lost (despite the fact that most of Glamorgan was loyal to him).

August 1645 = Glamorgan started to pass into Parliamentary hands Cardiff handed over to Prichard of Llancaiach..

1646 = Cardiff Town taken by Royalist forces under Sir Edward Carne and the Castle beseiged.

1646 = Parliamentary forces (under Major-General Laugharne) diverted from siege of Aberystwyth to relieve Cardiff Castle and Parliamentary ship of war sent to Cardiff..

20 February 1646 = Royalist forces from Raglan (under Sir Charles Kemeys) sent to Cardiff to support Carne. Considerable skirmish on the Heath at Cardiff. Followed by rout of the Royalists and the retaking of the town for Parliament.

25 May 1646 = Chepstow Castle, Monmouthshire taken by Parliamentary forces (under Col.Ewer) after stout defence by Sir Nicholas Kemeys who was killed and buried at St.John's Church, Cardiff by Rev. Thomas Andrews the vicar.

9 August 1646 - surrender of Raglan Castle to Parliament under honourable terms. Whole of South Wales in Parliamentary hands

1648 = Parliamentary Army in West Wales (under Major-General Laugharne) became disaffected and joined with Glamorgan Royalists to attack Parliamentary forces at Cardiff

8 May 1648 = Battle of St.Fagans fought between St.Fagans and Peterston-super-Ely. Royalist forces defeated with very high casualties. (it is said that there were 65 widows left in the parish of St.Fagans alone and 700 in Glamorgan as a whole as a result of this battle - the river Ely ran with blood !)

1648 = As a result of the Battle of St.Fagans many of the Glamorgan Gentry were condemned to death, 240 Welshmen were transported to Barbadoes and 1000 of the rank and file of the defeated army were sent to fight in Italy.. Some of the Gentry escaped with exilement instead of death.

1650 = school set up in Cardiff under a Commonwealth scheme for the provision of education

1651 = Christopher Love of Cardiff instigates Love's Plot to restore the monarchy

1651 = Christopher Love executed on Tower Hill, London for opposition to Cromwell

1653 = Cardiff Castle repaired and used for ammunition storage and as a garrison

1655 - Thomas Holmes of Kendal, Westmorland, a Quaker (converted by George Fox), toured South Wales preaching the Quaker Doctrine.

1655 = John ap John, Welsh Quaker "apostle" toured South Wales and was imprisoned at Swansea

1657 = George Fox, Quaker leader, visited Cardiff and preached at the Town Hall

1660 = Restoration of the Monarchy

1660 = King Charles II called upon the county of Glamorgan to clear the Bristol Channel of pirates.

1662 = Independents & Baptists started a church at Craig-yr-Allt Farmhouse, Caerphilly

1662 = Many clergy ejected from their livings in Glamorgan for dissent

1662 = Revival of Llandaff Cathedral School after Civil War

1668 = George Fox (Quaker leader) visited South Wales for a second time

1672 - Act of Indulgence allows some degree of freedom to Non-conformists but withdrawn 1673

1673 = Beau Nash born at Swansea

1680 = new iron furnace built at Caerphilly

1682 = Establishment of Swansea Grammar School

Abt 1682 = Sir Leoline Jenkins bought Cowbridge Grammar School from the Stradling family

By 1684 = Margam Abbey House built by the Mansel family

1685 = Sir Leoline Jenkins died leaving a bequest to Cowbridge Grammar School to fund schoolonig for 10 "poor boys" and 5 "pensioners" and endowing two scholarships and an exhibition at Jesus College, Oxford

1686 = Gnoll Estate, Neath came into posession of Sir Humphrey Mackworth

1688 = Edward Llewelyn of Newton Nottage tried as a Jacobite

1689 = Religious toleration for Non-conformists re-established

1690 = Non-conformist chapel set up in Merthyr Tydfil at Cwm-y-Glo

1690s = New smelting techniques using coal as fuel applied at the Abbey & Melincryddan Copper Works at Neath

1698 = Baptist Chapel established in High Street, Swansea

A CHRONOLOGY OF GLAMORGAN

The following chronology covers the main elements of the history of Glamorgan mainly for the period up to 1960 with a few later events. It is intended to be of use to people researching their family history in the area, in order to provide a background to their research and maybe some pointers as to why their ancestors lived where they did or moved in or out of the area. It includes the dates of foundation of many of the main organisations in the county, the opening of older churches (but not the original parish churches) & chapels (mainly before 1850), Theatres, Cinemas, Old Inns & Hotels & Industrial Companies. I realise that it is not exhaustive and undoubtedly people who know the county will find that things that they might have included are not in my list. If anyone wants anything added I shall be pleased to consider it if they can give me the details. It is my hope that I will, in any case, be able to make additions in time.

The chronology can be read in conjunction with my Cardiff & Vale Chronology, and some events will be found in both.

A Wales timeline is already available via the Glamorgan Help pages and I have produced a Chronology of British History which is available on my website.

In order to find a specific event without reading through the whole list please use the "find" facility of your browser. In this way you should be able to find any references to a particular year or subject.

THE INDEX - PERIOD 1700 TO 1849

By 1700 = Swansea had replaced Neath as the most important copper smelting area in Wales

1708 = Melin Cwrt Iron Furnace established at Resolven for manufacture of pig iron

1708 = Jane Herbert of the Friars, Cardiff died leaving 600 to found a school in Cardiff. Land at Gurnos, Merthyr Tydfil bought as investment to provide income for the maintenance of the school.

(known as the Gurnos Charity)

1709 = SPCK published the first Book of Common Prayer in Welsh

1710 = Baptist chapel established at Hengoed

1711 = Francis Wyndham of Clearwell, Glos. instrumental in persuading the SPCK to establish a library in Cowbridge for the use of local clergy and school teachers

1717 = Llangyfelach Copper smelting works set up in Tawe Valley by Dr.John Lane of Bristol

1722 = South West tower and roof of Llandaff Cathedral collapsed

1726 = Robert Morris took over Llangyfelach Copper Works, Swansea from Dr.John Lane

Abt 1731 = Circulating schools started in Glamorgan by Griffith Jones, Vicar of Llanddowror, Carms. (By 1761 over 150.000 children had passed through the schools)

1732 = Thomas & Robert Coster of Bristol took over the Copper Works at Melincryddan, Neath from Humphrey Mackworth

1732 = Customs Officer at Cardiff called for assistance to rid the area of smugglers (without success)

1733 = Charlotte Herbert niece of Thomas Herbert, 8th Earl of Pembroke (and daughter of Philip Herbert, 7th Earl of Pembroke) inherited the Lordship of Cardiff which then passed to her husband Thomas, Viscount Windsor.

1737 = Coster Brothers & Joseph Percival of Bristol leased land from Bussy Mansel of Briton Ferry to build a new copper smelting works at White Rock near Swansea harbour.

1737 = Thomas Price of Watford-Fawr, Caerphilly granted lease of land at Watford for the building of Watford Independant Chapel

1737 = Flat Holme Lighthouse built by Bristol businessmen

1738 = David Williams, Waunwaelod born - later founder of the Royal Literary Fund

March 1739 = George Whitefield, leader of the Oxford Methodist Group preached at Cardiff Town Hall

1739 = Watford Chapel, Caerphilly built. David Williams of Pwllypant pastor.

1739 = David Williams of Pwllypant started a free school for local children at Cwm Farmhouse, Caerphilly

1739 = St.Mary's Church, Swansea partially re-built

1739 = Charles Wesley invited to preach at Cardiff

October 1739 = John Wesley visited Wales

1740s = Rees Powell of Llanharan acquired the lease of Melin Griffith (Corn Mill), Whitcurch and converted it for use as an iron works and also set up a forge

1740 = John Wesley preached at Cardiff Shire Hall

1740 = Lliw Forge, near Pontardulais established

1740 = Cardiff Iron Forge established by Thomas Lewis of New House, Llanishen

19 November 1740 = Charles Wesley preached at Newport, Mon & at Cardiff Town Hall

1741 = George Whitefield Methodist evangelist married Elizabeth James at Capel Martin, Caerphilly

1742 = First General Association of English & Welsh Methodists held at Plas Watford, Caerphilly

2 March 1742 = John Wesley preached at Llanishen & at Cardiff

3 March 1742 = John Wesley preached at Llantrisant

1742 = The Cardiff Society (Methodist) formed

1742 = Groeswen Methodist Chapel, Caerphilly opened (inspired by Howel Harris)

1743 = Cymmer Independent Chapel, Rhondda opened

1743 = The Cardiff Methodist Society built its own Meeting Rooms in Church Street, Cardiff

January 1743 = George Whitefield elected Moderator of the General Association of English & Welsh Methodists at Groeswen Chapel

May 1743 = John Wesley received a poor hearing in Cowbridge

May 1743 = John Wesley preached to large congregation at Wenvoe

21 July 1743 = John Wesley preached at Neath to a poor reception

22 July 1743 = John Wesley preached at Margam but the Welsh speaking congregation could not understand him.

26 March 1746 = Grand Jury found David Jones of Llanfihangel y fedw guilty of sedition for declaring himself a supporter of King James.

29 July 1746 = David Morgan of Penygraig, Counsellor to Prince Charles Edward Stuart (the Young Pretender) executed on Kennington Common, London for his Jacobite beliefs.

1747 = Unitarians set up chapel at Hen Dy Cwrdd, Cefn Coed, near Merthyr Tydfil

1749 = The Union Society established (Friendly Society)

1749 = Aberthin Methodist Chapel, near Cowbridge opened (inspired by Howel Harris)

1749 = The Sympathetic Society established in Cardiff (Mutual society for the relief of widows)

1749 = Rees Powell granted a lease on Melin Griffirh Works, Whitchurch to Richard Jordan & Francis Homfray

Abt 1750 = Llanharan House built for Rees Powell

1751 = Howell Harris and Daniel Rowland, Welsh Methodist leaders fell into dispute weakening the Methodist cause in South Wales & Howell Harris stopped his travelling preaching, withdrawing to his home at Trevecka, Mon..

1751 = Trecynon Meeting House opened

1756 = Pontypridd Bridge built by Willam Edwards

1757 = Lease granted to Isaac Wilkinson to establish an ironworks at Hirwaun

1757 = Upper Bank Works, Swansea (zinc & lead smelting) founded by Chauncey Townsend of London

10 April 1758 = John Freeman & Son with others took over White Rock Copper Works, Swansea

21 August 1758 = John Wesley set out on a tour of the Vale of Glamorgan to rekindle support for Methodism which had declined after the schism between Howell Harriis & Daniel Rowland

1759 = Establishment of the Dowlais Iron Works near Merthyr Tydfil by Thomas Lewis of New House, Llanishen & Thomas Price of Watford Fawr, Caerphilly

1760 = Richard Jordan obtained a 200 year lease of Melin Griffith Works, Whitchurch

1762 = Meeting at Swansea to discuss the building of turnpike roads

1762 = Remodelling of Fonmon Castle for Jones Family

1763 = Reconciliation between Howell Harris & Daniel Rowland Itinerant preaching resumed. John Wesley visited Howell Harris at Trevecka

By 1764 = building of the turnpike road between Gloucester, Cardiff and Swansea started

August 1764 = John Wesley in Gower, which he particularly liked because it was an English speaking area and there was thus no language barrier

Bef 1765 = Horse Racing became popular in Glamorgan, particularly at Stalling Down, near Cowbridge and the Great Heath in Cardiff

1765 = Thomas & Walter Jordan in charge of the Melin Griffith Works, Whitchurch. Tinplate works added to the site.

1765 = Henry Knight commenced remodelling of Tythegston Court

1765 = Anthony Bacon took out a lease at Cyfarthfa near Merthyr Tydfil for an ironworks

1766 = Cyfarthfa Iron Works established at Merthyr Tydfil

12 November 1766 = John Stuart, Earl of Bute married Charlotte Jane Windsor daughter of Viscount Windsor, Baron Herbert of Cardiff

1767 = Jordan Brothers of Melin Griffith, Whitchurch became insolvent

1767 = John Guest became manager of the Dowlais Iron Works

September 1767 = John Wesley embarked on a prolonged tour of South Wales

25 September 1767 = birth of John, eldest son of John Stuart, Earl of Bute

1768 to 1788 = many visits to various parts of South Wales by John Wesley

1768 = Sir John Morris decided to build a planned village for the workers at his copperworks. Beginnings of Morriston

1769 = Rhys Thomas of Llandovery set up as a printer in Cowbridge - the first printer in Glamorgan

1770 = James Harford, Richard Partridge and other Bristol Quakers took a lease on Melin Griffith Works, Whitchurch plus other local property at Forest Farm & Velindre, Whitchurch

5 April 1770 = First part of John Walters' English-Welsh Dictionary published by Rhys Thomas of Cowbridge

Bef 1772 = establishment of copperworks at Cardiff

1772 = Landore Quay, Swansea built by John Morris I for shipment of copper & coal

1772 = Iolo Morganwg (Edward Williams of Flemingston), probably the most learned Welshman of his day, and founder of the Gorsedd of the Bards published his first booklet

28 October 1772 = Glamorganshire Agricultural Society founded at a meeting at the Bear Inn, Cowbridge under the chairmanship of Thomas Mansel Talbot of Margam

1773 = Thomas Mansel Talbot inherited Penrice Castle Estate, Gower and commenced the construction of a new Penrice Castle in the groundsof the estate.

1773 = Llantrisant Town Hall built

21 July 1773 = death of Howell Harris at Trevecka from tuberculosis aged 60

1774 = Sir John Morris paid for the building of Morris Castle - workers housing at Landore, Nr. Swansea

1775 = Sir John Morris erected Clasemont, Swansea as his new home

1776 = Charlotte Jane Windsor daughter of Herbert, Viscount Windsor inherited the Lordship of Cardiff which then passed to her husband, John Stuart, Earl of Bute & Lord Mount-Stuart who then became Baron of Cardiff Castle (Lord Cardiff of Cardiff Castle)

1776 = Sir Herbert Mackworth re-built Gnoll House, Neath

1776 = construction of Wenvoe Castle, near Cardiff

Abt 1777 = Bedford Ironworks established at Cefn Cribbwr, near Bridgend

1777 = Anthony Bacon leased the Plymouth Iron Works, Methyr Tydfil

1777 = Very severe snow and ice in Glamorgan

1777 = Upper Bank Works, Swansea converted from zinc & lead smelting to copper smelting

1778 = Beginning of reconstruction of Cardiff Castle

1782 = John Guest became a partner in the Dowlais Iron Works

1782 = Anthony Bacon leased the Cyfarthfa Iron Works to Samuel Homfrey

1783 = Death of Thomas Price of Watford Fawr, Caerphilly

1783 = canal built by John Smith to serve his Llansamlet Colliery

1784 = Penydarren Iron Works established near Merthyr Tydfil by Jeremiah, Samuel & Thomas Homfray

1784 = Clydach Upper Forge opened by Richard Parsons

1784 = Edward King of Swansea built Marino Villa, Swansea (later the basis for Singleton Abbey)

1784 = Baptists started meeting at Tonyfelin, Caerphilly

1784 = Bacon leased his interests in the Cyfarthfa Works to Richard Crawshay & Cocksutt

1784 = Thomas Knight active as a smuggler at Barry Island

1785 = John Wood became Senior Treasurer of Glamorgan

1785 = Ruperra Castle burned down. Rebuilding started.

1786 = Anthony Bacon died and his interests disposed of

1786 = John Guest retired as partner in Dowlais Iron Company and was succeeded by his son Josiah John Guest.

1786 = Formation of the Melingriffith Benefit Club by workers with support of management to provide relief for workers in times of distress

1786 = Richard Crawshay came to Merthyr Tydfil to take control of the Cyfarthfa Iron Works

1786 = Richard Hill (previously agent to Anthony Bacon) obtained Bacon's Plymouth Works

1786 = Bacon's Hirwaun Works obtained by Mr.Glover of Abercarn, Mon.

1786 = Richard Forman joined the Homfreys as a partner in the Penydarren Iron Works

1787 = Stouthall, Reynoldston built for John Lucas.

1787 = Margam Orangery constructed for Thomas Mansel Talbot

1788 = death of Charles Wesley in London

1788 = Penclawdd Copper Works built & operated by John Vivian

1789 = first Wesley Chapel in Swansea founded

6 March 1789 = John Wood, Attorney at Law, sworn in as Town Clerk of Cardiff

2 November 1789 = Public meeting held in Swansea to promote additional turnpike roads

By 1790 = Glamorganshire Races established

1790 = John Stuart, Earl of Bute elected MP for Cardiff

1790 = Glamorganshire Canal Navigation Company formed under a private Act of Parliament

1790s = Establishment of Caerphilly Market by William Price of Watford Fawr, Caerphilly

1790s = Jacobins (Radicals) of Merhyr Tydfil active

1791 = Swansea Harbour Act promoted by Sir Watkin Lewes

2 March 1791 = death of John Wesley aged 89, in London

1792 = Fox family of Falmouth, Cornwall took over the Neath Abbey Iron Works

1793 = Mumbles Head Lighthouse, Gower built

1793 = Friendly Societies Act established a firm footing for Friendly Societies which provided some measure of assurance in sickness or old age. eg Order of Oddfellows, Ancient Order of Foresters, Hibernian Liberal Society, Total Abstinence Society.

1793 = completion of the Glamorganshire Canal between Abercynon and Cardiff

10 August 1793 = birth of John Stuart, son of John Stuart (d.1794) and grandson of the Earl of Bute

1793 to 1795 = 9000 tons of iron and considerable quantities of cannon sent from Cardiff to Woolwich Arsenal for use in the war

1794 = Corn riots in Swansea

1794 = Swansea Canal Bill promoted by Sir Watkin Lewes

1794 = Glamorganshire Canal opened

22 January 1794 = John Stuart, eldest son & heir of John Stuart, Earl of Bute died as a result of a fall from his horse

By 1795 = Daily mail coaches operating between London and Cardiff and Milford Haven and Cardiff

June & July 1795 = Tour of Glamorgan by JMW Turner, Artist.

1796 = John Stuart, eldest son of the Earl of Bute created Marquis of Bute

1797 = Threats of French invasion resulted in hasty raising of Militia forces

1797 = Rose Copper Co. of Birmingham founded the Crown Copper Works, Skewen

February 1797 = French landing in Pembrokeshire repulsed by local Yeomanry & country people

24 February 1798 = Ballots held to raise the Glamorgan Militia

1799 = start of the Penydarren Tramway from Penydarren Iron Works, Merthyr Tydfil to Abercynon to join the Glamorganshire Canal

1799 = Quaker Meeting House established at Neath

1800 = Troubles in Ireland result in the despatch of troops from Cardiff to that country

1800 = major unrest in Glamorgan over low wages, scarcity of provisions and the activities of the Press Gangs

1800 = Swansea was the largest town in Wales

28 January 1800 = death of Charlotte Jane, wife of 1st Marquis of Bute.

April 1800 = riots at Merthyr Tydfil

1801 = First Iron Works in Rhymney Valley built by Union Iron Co. at Llechryd

20 April 1801 = Demonstrations at Swansea by women & children regarding the price of food. Cardigan Militia, stationed at Swansea, called out to quell the disturbance. Supposed threat of riot by colliers in Swansea resulted in the Inniskilling Dragoons (stationed at Cardiff) being called in. The threatened riots did not occur.but there were some minor disturbances.

1802 = Dunraven Castle, Southerndown built

1802 = Union Iron Co. built Butetown in the Rhymney Valley as the start of a "model" village for their workers

7 April 1803 = John Stuart, grandson of 1st Marquis of Bute inherited from his maternal grandfather the title of Earl of Dumfries

1803 = Cefn Rhigos Tramroad built from Aberdare to join the Neath Canal - operated by a Trevithick engine

1804 = John Wood (snr) resigned as Town Clerk of Cardiff

1804 = John Wood (jnr) appointed Town Clerk of Cardiff

21 February 1804 = Richard Trevithick's steam engine ran on the Penydarren Tramway

1805 = Pentyrch Iron Works taken over by Harford & Partridge and linked with Melin Griffith Works

1806 = Cyfarthfa Philosophical Society set up by the Jacobins of Merthyr Tydfil

1806 = Merthyr Mawr House built for Sir John Nicholl

1806 = Swansea & Mumbles Railway (first ever paying passenger carrying railway) opened. (closed 1960)

Abt 1808 = Swansea tried to develop itself as a seaside resort

1809 = Walter Coffin commenced prospecting for coal in the Lower Rhondda Valley

1809 = Coal mines opened at Dinas, Rhondda by Walter Coffin

1809 = Jeremiah Homfrey leased land at Hafod, Rhondda for coalmining

1809 = setting up of the Court of Requests in Merthyr Tydfil to allow Bailiffs to seize goods of debtors

1809 = Tramroad opened from Hafod, Rhondda to the Glamorganshire Canal at Treforest by Dr.Richard Griffiths

1810 = Cyfarthfa Iron Works, Merthyr Tydfil was the largest ironworks in the world employing around 1500

1810 = Melin Griffith Works, Whitchurch under management of Richard Blakemore, nephew of Partridge

1810 = Morris family move out of Clasemont, Swansea to a new home at Sketty Park House

1810 = strike by workers at Dowlais Iron Works

1810 = Hafod Copper Works, Swansea founded by John Vivian

1810 = The Union Jubilee Society established (Friendly Society)

1811 = Bethesda Chapel. Merthyr Tydfil built (rebuilt 1829 & 1880)

1811 = Ebenezer Independent Chapel, Aberdare opened

1812 = The Friendly Society established

1812 = Walter Coffin opened Dinas Lower Colliery, Dinas Uchaf, Rhondda

1812 = Initial steps taken for a canal from Abercynon to Aberdare to open up the coal industry in the Cynon Valley and the addition of a tramway from Aberdare to Hirwaun Iron Works

1812 = Walter Coffin moved from Bridgend to live at Llandaff Court, Cardiff

By 1813 = Classical & Commercial Academy (Mr.John Morgan) established in Cardiff - one of the first schools to provide a Classical education in Cardiff

1813 = Philadelphia Baptist Chapel, Barry opened

1813 = formation of the Cardiff Welsh Baptist cause

1813 = Nantgarw Pottery established near Treforest by William Weston Young & William Billingsley

1813 = Methodist Chapel, Castle Street, Neath opened

1814 = The Women's Club (Friendly Society) established

1814 = John Stuart, Earl of Dumfries, grandson of 1st Marquis of Bute & Lord Cardiff inherited the titles and estates of his paternal grandfather and became 2nd Marquis of Bute & Lord Cardiff

1815 = twice weekly boat service from Cardiff to Bristol

1815 = Sion Calvanitic Methodist chapel, Cadoxton-juxta-Barry opened on land obtained from Thomas French of Wenvoe

9 October 1815 = opening of a boys school as The Cardiff School for Promoting the Education of the Poor, under the Presidency of the Marquis of Bute and supported by the Town Council

1816 = strike by iron workers in various parts of South Wales

1817 = Joseph Tregelles Price took over the Neath Abbey Iron Works

1817 = opening of a girls school under the same arrangements as the boys school opened in 1815

27 April 1817 - death of John Wood, late Town Clerk of Cardiff & Treasurer of the County of Glamorgan

1817 = John Bird appointed Town Clerk of Cardiff

1817 = John Henry Vivian bought Marino Villa, Swansea and used it as the basis for his new home

1818 = Nicholl Wood appointed Town Clerk of Cardiff

1818 = W.H.Forman, son of Richard Forman, took over the Penydarren Works, Merthyr Tydfil from the Homfray family

1818 = Samuel Brown ( ex Lieutenant in the Royal Navy) came to Pontypridd and took over a nail works previously oprated by William Crawshay Brown and his cousin Samuel Lennox set up the Brown Lennox Company as the Newbridge Chain & Anchor Works (Pontypridd)

1819 = Iolo Morganwg managed to get the Gorsedd of the Bards (his invention) associated with the eisteddfod held at Carmarthen, thus starting the now traditional link between the Eisteddfod and Bardic Culture

2 October 1819 = establishment of a public savings bank in Cardiff with help from the Marquis of Bute

1820 = Daily mail coach started operating between Cardiff and Merthyr Tydfil

1820 = regular boat service between Bristol and Newport with connecting coach to Cardiff

1820 = Tabernacle Chapel, Cardiff built

1820s = Richard Blakemore adopted his nephew, Thomas William Booker and trained him to manage the Melin Griffith & Pentyrch Iron Works

1820 = Tennant Canal built from junction with the Neath Canal at Aberdulais to Port Tennant, Swansea

1820s = Establishment of Wesleyan Methodist Society in Melingriffith, Whitchurch

1821 = Tabernacle Welsh Baptist Chapel, The Hayes, Cardiff opened

1821 = Bethany English Baptist Chapel, St.Mary Street, Cardiff opened

1821 = The Assembly Rooms, Swansea opened

1822 = Nantgarw Pottery ceased production

1824 = Robert & Lucy Thomas at Waun Wyllt, near Merhyr Tydfil first to mine steam coal

1824 = Port Tennant tidal harbour, Swansea built

1824 = Ararat Baptist Chapel, Whitchurch founded

1825 = William Crawshay had Cyfarthfa Castle built at Merthyr Tydfil as his new home

1825 = Commencement of building of new Swansea Guildhall, Somerset Place, Swansea (completed 1829)

1825 = Theatre Group formed in Cardiff

1825 = Porthcawl Harbour Bill to permit the building of a harbour at Porthcawl and the construction of the Duffryn Llynvi & Portcawl Railway to coonect the coal & iron mines of Maesteg to the harbour at Porthcawl

1826 = 40000 tons of coal exported from Cardiff

1826 = Penuel & Tyrinity Presbyterian Church, Llantrisant built

13 March 1826 = Formation of the Mechanics Institute in Cardiff

12 September 1826 = First Theatre opened in Cardiff at Crockerton as the Theatre Royal with a

performance of Macbeth with Mr W.C.Macready in the principal role

1826/7 = Guest & Co Glass Works established in Cardiff

1827 = Zion Welsh Methodist Chapel, Trinity Street, Cardiff opened

1827 = Gadlys Iron Works, Aberdare opened by Matthew Wayne

1827 = Work started on construction of Singleton Abbey, Swansea for John Henry Vivian

1827 = George Insole entered into partnership with Richard Biddle as a timber merchant in Cardiff

1828 = Ebenezer Welsh Congregational Chapel , Cardiff opened

1828 = Colliery opened at Cwm Nant Llwyd, near Pontardawe by George Crane

1828 = Cilybebyll Colliery opened by George Crane

1828 = Morfa Copper Rolling Mill, Hafod, Swansea opened by Williams, Foster & Co.

Bef 1829 = Richard Tredwin established as a prominent shipbuilder in Cardiff, opened the first Cardiff Dry Dock

1829 = Thomas Powell sank two coal shafts at Gelligaer and connected them by tramroad to the Glamorganshire Canal

1829 = Players Foundry, Clydach opened by John Strick

1829 = fall in demand for iron caused a depression in the iron industry

1829 = Ebenezer Welsh Baptist Chapel, Plymouth St., Merthyr Tydfil built (completed 1831)

1829 = Walter Coffin opened Dinas Works School for children of his workers at Dinas Colliery

1830 = Aberdulais Falls Tinplate Works established

1830 = Ebenezer Methodist Chapel, Rhondda opened

1830 = George Insole acquired a wharf at Cardiff on the Glamorganshire Canal and set up in business as a coal shipper

1830 = Radicals in Merthyr Tydfil organised a Political Union to lead a campaign for political reform

1830 = National Association of the Protection of Labour (NAPL) formed in the North of England

1830 = York Place English Baptist Chapel, Swansea built

1830 = Cardiff Assizes replaced Court of Great Sessions

1830 = Second daily coach service between Cardiff and Merthyr Tydfil

1830 = 66000 tns of iron exported from Cardiff

1830 = A new Margam Abbey House built for the Talbot family (completed 1835)

1830 = Parlimentary Bill obtained for the building of the Bute West Dock by 2nd Marquis of Bute.

November 1830 = demonstrations for political reform in Merhyr Tydfil gained support for reform by William Crawshay of Cyfarthfa and Josiah John Guest of Dowlais

By 1830 = The Cardiff & Bristol Company conveying goods by sea on a regular service from London to Bristol and Cardiff and The Cardiff & London Shipping Company also established for conveyance of goods

1831 = NAPL set up Colliers Union and sent organisers to North & South Wales to set up branches

1831 = Soar Baptist Chapel, Penygraig, Rhondda opened

23 May 1831 = Crawshay made 84 workers redundant at Cyfarthfa and cut wages of his workers

30 May 1831 = Mass meeting of ironworkers from Merhyr Tydfil & Monmouthshire at Waun Common, Dowlais

2 June 1831 = Severe rioting in Merthyr Tydfil and attack on the Court of Requests

3 June 1831 = Rioters attacked the soldiers (93rd Highland Regiment) brought in to keep the peace at the Castle Inn, Merthyr Tydfil. After a hand to hand fight the soldiers opened fire and up to 24 rioters were killed and 16 soldiers wounded Rioters dispersed but regrouped to attack again the nex day

4 June 1831 = Swansea Yeomanry on their way to Merthyr Tydfil ambushed at Hirwaun & ammunition supplies ambushed at Cefn Coed.

4 June 1831 = Deputations of rioters meet the ironmasters at Penydarren House. Just on the point of attacking the mob met with the last deputation and broke up.

5 June 1831 = delegations sent by the Merthyr rioters to recruit support in Monmouthshire

6 June 1831 = 12000 to 20000 rioters from Monmouthshire marched to Merthyr to meet the Merthyr men at the Waun. The authorities decided to attack the rioters, but they gave way and many returned home. The riot was over.

13 July 1831 = start of the trials of the ringleaders of the riots at Merthyr at Cardiff Assizes

14 July 1831 = Dic Penderyn (Richard Lewis) and Lewis Lewis sentenced to death

30 July 1831 = Lewis Lewis reprieved of the death sentence and condemned to transportation for life

3 August 1831 = Lewis Lewis transported to Australia

13 August 1831 = Dic Penderyn (Richard Lewis) executed on the gallows near St.Mary Street, Cardiff September 1831 = Lock out of Dowlais ironworkers who refused to give up membership of the Colliers Union. Other workers went out on strike in support.

November 1831 = Strike of Merthyr iron workers broken. Workers renounced the union and returned to work

1832 = George Insole acquired the Maesmawr Colliery, Llantwit Fardre from J.Bennet Grover

1832 = Nash Point Lighthouses erected in response to request from 440 ship owners of Bristol Channel ports

1832 = Reform Bill

1832 = first gas works built at Bridgend

1832/3 = new County gaol built in the Spital Field, Cardiff (the present site of Cardiff Gaol)

1833 = First steam boat service between Cardiff & Bristol

1833 = Nantgarw Pottery site used by the Pardoe family for manufacture of earthenware.

1834 = Eisteddfod held in Cardiff

1834 = William Crawshay commenced Treforest Tinplate Works

1834 = Aberavon Harbour Co. formed to build a floating dock for use of the iron & copper industries

1834 = Anthony Alsop, Iron Master, leased the Old Boring Mill in Cardiff for the boring of cannon

1835 = Rolling Mill built at Treforest Tinplate Works

1835 = First export of Cynon Valley coal from Cardiff

1835 = Glyncorrwg Coal Co.opened Glyncorrwg Colliery

7 September 1835 = Municipal Corporations Act ended the control of towns by their herditary lords,

replacing this with control by elected representatives of the people

1836 = First Cardiff Police Force organised. John Stockdale, ex London Police Force appointed first Superintendent of Police for Cardiff

1836 = Private Act of Parliament obtained by Sir John Josiah Guest for the construction of a single track railway from the Merthyr Tydfil & Dowlais ironworks to the dock proposed for construction at Cardiff (Taff Vale Railway)

1836 = Founding of Glamorgan & Monmouthshire Infirmary and Dispensary (Cardiff Royal Infirmary)

By 1837 = Batchelor Bros set up timber importing business in Cardiff

By 1837 = Daniel Thomas and Watson & Co. had set up saw-mills on the wharf at Cardiff

At 1837 = Clyne Wood Arsenic & Copper Works built near Blackpill, Gower

1837 = Sir Robert Price leased Bettws Colliery & formed the Glamorgan Iron & Coal Co.

1837 = Abernant Colliery, Cynon Valley opened

1837 = Llynfi Iron Works, Maesteg founded

By 1838 = Formation of the Glamorganshire Literary and Scientific Institution

1838 = Carmarthen lawyer Hugh Williams helped set up the first Chartist branch in Wales in Carmarthen

1838 = Union Street Welsh Methodist Chapel , Cardiff opened

1838 = Sir Robert Price & Sir Francis Knowles took a lease on land at Tondu for the construction of an ironworks

1838 = Ystalyfera Iron & Tinplate Works built

1838 = Muntz's Yellow Metal (alloy of zinc & copper used for ship's bottoms first made at Upper Bank Copperworks, near Swansea

1838 = Dr.William Price erected two roundhouses at Glyntaff as part of a projected Druidic Museum

1839 = Opening of Aberavon Harbour as Port Talbot (after the Talbot Family of Margam)

1839 = Venallt Iron Works, Cwmgwrach opened

13 May 1839 = Rebecca Riots started in Pembrokeshire/Cardiganshire/Carmarthenshire led by men dressed as women and known as Rebecca. The object of the riots was the removal of the toll gate system.

9 October 1839 - opening of Bute West Dock, Cardiff - the first of the Cardiff docks

1839 = Royal Institution of South Wales, Cambrian Place, Swansea built (now Swansea Museum)

1839 = Publication of The People's Charter

1839 = 133000 tons of iron exported from Cardiff

4 November 1839 = Monmouthshire Chartists led by John Frost, William Jones & Zephaniah Williams "attacked" Newport, Mon.but a volley of shots from the army killing or injuring some 20 people broke up the riots and the leaders were eventually arrested and tried. John Frost & William Jones condemned to death but the sntence was commuted and they were transported to Van Diemenslad.

1840 to 1874 = Cynon Valley was the leading area for mining of steam coal

1840 = attempt by Cardiff to get permission to set up its own Ship Pilotage Authority defeated

1840 = Cadoxton Iron Works, Neath opened

8 October 1840 = first sector of the Taff Vale Railway opened from Cardiff to Abercynon

1841 = Zoar-Ynysgau Welsh Congrgational Chapel, High St., Merthyr Tydfil built

1841 = High Street Baptist Church, Merthyr Tydfil built

1841 = Zion (Seion) Welsh Baptist Church, Twynyrodyn Rd., Merthyr Tydfil built

1841 = First Cardiff Police Station opened in St.Mary Street, Cardiff

5 April 1841 = extension of Taff Vale Railway to Merthyr Tydfil

June 1841 = Taff Vale Railway branch to Dinas, Rhondda opened

1842 = St.Davids Catholic Church built in Bute Terrace, Cardiff

1842 = Outbreak of Cholera in Cardiff

1842 = recurrence of the Rebecca riots in West Wales

1842 = Mines Act passed by Parliament banning women and boys under 10 from working underground in mines

1842 = Start of digging of the New Cut to straighten the river at Swansea (completed 1845)

1842 = John Nixon took the first cargo of Glamorgan coal to France

By 1843 = South Wales supplying iron rails to Russia, Germany and USA for the railway expansion, all being exported via Cardiff. William Crawshay of Cyfarthfa supplied rails for every rail line in the USA and Guest for many rail lines in Russia

1843 = John Batchelor set up his shipbuilding yard in Cardiff (having moved from Newport, Mon)

1843 = Primrose Forge & Tinplate Works, Pontardawe founded by William Parsons

1843 = Restoration of Llandaff Cathedral commenced by Dean Knight

19 June 1843 = Crowd led by "Rebecca" destroyed the Carmarthen Workhouse. 4th Light Dragoons arrived from Cardiff and the crowd ran away

June 1843 = 73rd Regiment of Foot sent to Carmarthen to join the 4th Light Dragioons

July 1843 = first "Rebecca" incidents in Glamorgan at Pontarddulais & Llangyfelach. Leaders of the Glamorgan rioters were Shoni Sgubor Fawr (John Jones) from Penderyn, Merthyr Tydfil & Dai'r Cantwr (David Davies) from Llancarfan.

6 September 1843 = Serious attack on the Toll gate in Pontarddulais. Soldiers and police brought in to quell the disturbances. 7 peole arrested.

8 September 1843 = Attack on the tollgate at Hendy. Toll keeper (Sarah Davies) killed

September 1843 = Violence of the Rebeccaites led by Shon Sgubor Fawr & Dai'r Cantwr turned many away from suporting the movement

September 1843 = Metroploitan Police and Royal Marines brought in to West Glamorgan area to prevent riots.

September 1843 = Shoni Sgubor Fawr & Dai'r Cantwr informed upon and arrested

26 October 1843 = Trial of the Pontarddulais Rebecca rioters. Leaders sentenced to transportation

14 December 1843 = opening of new St,Mary's Church, Cardiff

27 December 1843 = Trial of Shoni Sgubor Fawr & Dai'r Cantwr at Carmarthen Assizes. Both transported to Australia

1844 = George Insole acquired the South Cymmer Coal Level, Rhondda

1844 = John Williams ironmongery business set up in Cardiff (later John Williams Iron Foundry)

1844 = George Gethin & Lewis Edwards opened Nythbran Colliery

1845 = The South Wales Railway incorporated to run from Chepstow to Swansea via Newport & Cardiff (with Isambard Kingdom Brunel as engineer)

By 1845 = Swansea produced 55% of the world's copper. Swansea became Wales' second largest town. Only Merthyr Tydfil being bigger

1845 = Unitarian Church built on the site of the old Baptist Chapel, High Street, Swansea

1845 = Gellifaelog Colliery, Rhondda opened by Walter Coffin

1846 = St.David's Church, Merthyr Tydfil built (completed 1847)

1847 = Cymmer No.1 Colliery, Rhondda opened by George Insole

1847 = St.David's Priory Curch (Catholic), Swansea built

1847 = opening of College Street Wesley Chapel, Swansea

1847 = Report of the Commissioners of Inquiry into the State of Education in Wales (the Blue Books)

12 September 1847 = birth of John Stuart, son and heir of the 2nd Marquis of Bute by Sophia (Hastings)

1848 = First Public Cemetery in Cardiff opened in Adamsdown, Cardiff

1848 = an old smithy in Rhiwbina rented as a meeting house by the Congregationalists and called Beulah Chapel

1848 = Tymawr Colliery, Hopkinstown sunk

1849 = Further outbreak of Cholera in Cardiff

1849 = Disaster at Llety Shenkin Colliery, Mountain Ash killed 52 men

1849 = Rebuilding of Cowbridge Grammar School started (completed 1852)

1849 = extension of the Taff Vale Railway to Dowlais

1849 = start of the diversion of the River Taff in Cardiff to allow for the construction of the railway

A GLAMORGAN CHRONOLOGY

The following chronology covers the main elements of the history of Glamorgan mainly for the period up to 1960 with a few later events. It is intended to be of use to people researching their family history in the area, in order to provide a background to their research and maybe some pointers as to why their ancestors lived where they did or moved in or out of the area. It includes the dates of foundation of many of the main organisations in the county, the opening of older churches (but not the original parish churches) & chapels (mainly before 1850), Theatres, Cinemas, Old Inns & Hotels & Industrial Companies. I realise that it is not exhaustive and undoubtedly people who know the county will find that things that they might have included are not in my list. If anyone wants anything added I shall be pleased to consider it if they can give me the details. It is my hope that I will, in any case, be able to make additions in time.

The chronology can be read in conjunction with my Cardiff & Vale Chronology, and some events will be found in both.

A Wales timeline is already available via the Glamorgan Help pages and I have produced a Chronology of British History which is available on my website.

In order to find a specific event without reading through the whole list please use the "find" facility of your browser. In this way you should be able to find any references to a particular year or subject.

THE INDEX - PERIOD 1850 TO 1960+

By 1850 = 40% of Britain's iron output was being produced in South Wales

1850 = Poor Law Industrial Training School for Orphaned Children set up in Cardiff

1850 = Cardiff Water Company established to provide water to the town

1850 = Coal Mines Act set resulted in appointment of four Inspectors of Mines to enforce the safety laws in the British Coalfields

1850 = Charles Street Wesley Chapel, Cardiff built

18 June 1850 = opening of South Wales Railway - first train from Cardiff to Swansea

2 August 1850 = Last mail coach ran from Cardiff. Replaced by South Wales Railway mail service.

1851 = Admiralty Report declared that South Wales stem coal was the most suitable for use by the Royal Navy. Start of rapid expansion of steam coal industry

1851 = Census of Religious Worship shows the growth of non-conformity in Wales

1851 = Vale of Neath Railway built by Isambard Kingdom Brunel

1851 = Re-founding of Swansea Grammar School and new buildings built at Mount Pleasant, Swansea

1851 = Death of George Insole, Coal Owner. Buried St.Margarets, Roath

1851 = Rail link via South Wales Railway between Gloucester, Newport,Cardiff and Swansea

1852 = re-opening of Bute Iron Mines, Llantrisant after long period of closure

1852 = opening of Wesleyan Methodist Chapel at Melingriffith, Whitchurch

1852 = Swansea North Dock opened

1852 = Dyffryn Colliery disaster killed 64 men

1853 = Merthyr Union Workhouse built (now St.Tydfil's Hospital)

1853 = opening of new Town Hall in Cardiff

1853 = St.Johns, Canton opened as chapel of Llandaff Cathedral

1853 = Walter Coffin retired from active control of his businesses to go into politics

1853 = Perforated postage stamps first used in Cardiff

1853 = Electric telegraph between Cardiff and Swansea established

1853 = extension of South Wales Railway to Milford Haven, Pembs.

1853 = completion of the River Taff diversion in Cardiff

1853 = Proposal for a second dock at Cardiff as the Bute West Dock was too small to accommodate the newer, larger ships

1854 = Spillers & Browne set up in Cardiff as corn and flour merchants

1854 = Whilst loading coal at Cardiff Docks Russian & Turkish ships nearly started attacking each other (effect of the Crimean War)

1854 = Richard Scudamore, Richard Greaves & Nicholas Strong established a Methodist Meeting Room in Patrick Street, Cardiff Docks

1854 = Crimea Colliery, Ystalyfrera opened

1854 = Rhymney Railway Company incorporated to develop the mineral traffic of the Rhymney Valley

By 1855 = Danks, Venn & Sanders operating sloops between Cardiff and Newport, Swansea, Bristol, Gloucester Worcester, Bewdley and Stourport

By 1855 = Morgan & Sanders set up a rope-making factory at Cardiff West Dock

By 1855 = the Queens Hotel in operation in Cardiff

1855 = start of replacement of individual coal ownership by Limited Liability Companies

1855 = Revival of the National Eisteddfod

1855 = Cambrian Deaf & Dumb Asylum, Swansea founded

1855 = Mines Act required further safety measures in coalmines

1855 = re-opening of Mwyndy Iron Mines, Llantrisant after long period of closure

1855 = Charles Street English Congregational Chapel, Cardiff opened

1855 = Ely Racecourse, Cardiff established

20 June 1855 = Sir Robert Price sold the Glamorgan Iron & Coal Co., Tondu to John Brogden & Sons of Sale, Manchester

20 November 1855 = Sir Robert Price of Tondu bankrupt

1855 = opening of Bute East Dock, Cardiff

1855 = Horse buses in operation in Cardiff to a regular half-hour schedule

1855 = Treherbert Colliery sunk on the Marquis of Bute's land. Beginning of town of Treherbert, Rhondda

1855 = First train of Rhondda steam coal sent from Treherbert to Cardiff. Beginning of the Rhondda as the major coal mining area of South Wales

1855 = Establishment of the Sailors Home in Stuart Street, Cardiff by the Marchioness of Bute

1855 = Cymmer Colliery disaster killed 114 men

13 July 1856 = Disaster at Cymmer Colliery killed 114 men

1856 = Experimentation with the Bessemer Process for the manufacure of steel at the Dowlais ironworks. But unsuccessful because of the presence of sulphur & phosphorus in the local ores.

17 September 1856 = Loudon Square English Wesleyan Methodist Church, Cardiff opened.

1857 = Cardiff Times Newspaper first published

1857 = South Wales Instiute of Engineers founded.

1857 = Llandaff Cathedral re-opened

1857 = Tredgarville developed by the Tredegar Estate for its workers

4 January 1857 = last public execution at Cardiff (John Lewis of Merthyr Tydfil for murdering his wife)

By 1858 = Machen Forge established at Blackweir, Llandaff

1858 = Thomas Willliam Booker-Blakemore died. Melin Griffith & Pentyrch Works inherited by his sons

1858 = Penydarren Iron Works, Merthyr Tydfil closed

1858 = Rhymney Railway extended to Cardiff

1858 = opening of Jewish Synagogue, East Terrace, Cardiff

1859 = Swansea South Dock built

1859 = Acquisition of land at Wedal Farm, Cathays for a new Cardiff Municipal Cemetery

1859 = Brecon & Merthyr Tydfil Junction Railway incorporated

14 September 1859 = full completion of Bute East Dock, Cardiff

1860 - 1890 = great expansion of Cardiff timber business

By 1860 = Some 50 collieries (mainly in the Aberdare & Merthyr Tydfil areas) had offices in the docks area of Cardiff

Bef 1860 = Crown Patent Fuel Company set up at Blackweir, Cardiff for manufacture of coal briquettes

1860 = Zoar Welsh Baptist Chapel, Cardiff opened

1860 = Swansea Union Workhouse built at Mount Pleasant, Swansea

1860 = Offices of Taff Vale Railway opened in Crockerton, Cardiff

1860 = Beufort Tinplate Works, Llansamlet established by John Jones Jenkins (Lord Glantawe)

1860 = Cardiff Pilotage Board established under the Bristol Channel Pilotage Act

1861 = Eagle Foundry established in Llandaff

1861 = Dock opened at Briton Ferry

1861 = Swansea Prison built in Oystermouth Road

1862 = Llwynypia No 1 Colliery sunk

1862 = Neath & Brecon Railway incorporated

1862 = Llwynypia Terrace built beginning development of town of Tonypandy, for workers at Llwynypia Pit

By 1863 = Cardiff Rope Works set up in Grangetown by Verity & Coward

By 1863 = Gloucester Wagon Co works set up at Cardiff docks

By 1863 = John Bland & Co.set up its timber business in Cardiff

1863 = Blaenclydach & Llwynypia (bituminous coal) Collieries, Rhondda opened

1863 = Llanharry Iron Mine operating

1863 = first Cardiff built steam ship (The Lady Bute) launched by the Bute Docks Steam Shipbuilding Co.

1864 = Bodringallt, Llwynypia (steam coal) & Pentre Collieries, Rhondda opened

1864 = Cwmclydach & Penygraig (Bitumnous coal) Collieries, Rhondda opened

2 September 1864 = Neath & Brecon Railway opened

4 November 1864 = Glamorgan County Asylum opened at Angleton, Bridgend

1865 = Tydraw, Tynewydd, Abergorchy, Parc & Maendy Collieies, Rhondda opened

1865 = Beginning of town of Treorchy, Rhondda to house workers from Abergorchy Colliery

1865 = Science and Art School established in Cardiff

1865 = Marquis of Bute appointed William Burges as architect for the restoration of Cardiff Castle

1865 = Penarth Graving Dock set up by John Batchelor

1865 = Whiteford Point Lighthouse, Llanmadoc built to mark the channel to Llanelli harbour

1866 = Hamadryad Hospital for Seamen established at Cardiff

1866 = first General Post Office building in Cardiff built in St.Mary Street

1866 = Cardiff Chamber of Commerce established

1866 = Crown Copper Works, Skewen converted to Zinc smelting

1867 = Parliamentary Reform Act lead to working-class householders in towns having the right to vote

1867 = death of Walter Coffin, Rhondda Coal Owner. Buried Bridgend Unitarian Church.

1867 = Pit disaster at Ferndale Colliery killed 178 men

1868 = Radical Nonconformist Liberals won many Parliamentary seats in Wales. Beginning of Liberal domination of Welsh politics

8 December 1868 = John Stuart, 3rd Marquis of Bute, Lord Cardiff converted to Roman Catholicism

1868 = Cardiff Union Poor House built in Canton Road, Cardiff

1869 = amagamation of Bristol Steam Navigation Co and Cardiff Steam Navigation Co to operate daily passenger and cargo service betwen Cardiff and Bristol

1869 = Merthyr Vale Colliery started

1869 = Further disaster at Ferndale Colliery killed 60

1869 = Mumbles Railway, Swansea incorporated - Mumbles to Oystermouth

1869 = Dinas (Bituminous coal) Colliery & Blaenrhondda (steam coal) Colliery, Rhondda opened

1869 = Completion of restoration of Llandaff Cathedral by John Prichard & Seddon

1 May 1869 = Western Mail first published

1870 = Education Act. Primary education started to become available to most children

1870 = Gelli (Bituminous coal) Colliery, Rhondda opened

1870 = Dare (steam coal) Colliery, Rhondda opened

About 1870 = choirs, bands and sporting activities began to come to imprtance in South Wales Valleys

1870 = Education Act established State Education system.

1870 = Williams, Foster & Co. & Vivian & Son took over White Rock Copper Works, Swansea for production of lead & silver

1870s = Iron Mining started at Trecastle, Llanharry

1871 = Amalgamated Association of Miners established in South Wales

1871 = Nant Hir Reservoir built at Hirwaun (completed 1875)

1872 = Glynmoch & Trealaw (Bituminous coal) Collieries, Rhondda opened

1872 = Clydach Vale No1, Llwynypia Nos 4 & 5, & Fernhill (steam coal) Collieries, Rhondda opened

1872 = Mines Act made it law that Colliery Managers must be trained and achieve a Manager's Certificate. Duties of managers, under-managers, overmen, & firemen laid down. Increase in numbers of Inspectors of Mines.

1873 = Formation of South Wales Coalowners Association

1874 = Remodelling of Catell Coch, Tongwynlais commenced

1874 = Clydach Vale No 2 (steam coal) Colliery, Rhondda opened

1874 = The Rest, Porthcawl built as a convalescent home for coalminers

1874 = opening of the Roath Basin at Cardiff

1875 = Committee set up to decide wage levels of South Wales miners

1875 = Establishment of Bristol Channel Yacht Club at Mumbles, Swansea

1875 = ironworks established in Grangetown, Cardiff

1876 = Western Colliery, Ogwr Valley opened

1876 = Tynybedw (steam coal) Colliery, Rhondda opened

8 November 1876 = Disaster at Ferndale Colliery killed 178 men

1877 = Lady Margaret, Cymmer, Gelli & Eastern (steam coal) Collieries, Rhondda opened

1877 = Locomotives first used on MumblesRailway, Swansea

1877 = first public telephone service in Cardiff

1878 = Tower Colliery, Hirwaun opened by the Bute Trustees

1879 = Fernhill Colliery, Rhondda opened

1879 = Melingriffith Works went into liquidation

1879 = Pandy (steam coal) Colliery, Rhondda opened

By 1880 = Glamorgan Wagon Works set up at East Moors, Cardiff

By 1880 = Bristol Wagon Works set up a branch at East Moors, Cardiff

1880 = Ely (steam coal) Colliery, Rhondda opened

1880 = Inital opening of Cardiff Arms Park

1880 = start of development of Anthracite Coalfield in South Wales

1880 = Cardiff Shipowners Association formed

1880s = Melingriffith Works taken over by Cardiff Iron & Tinplate Co. Pentyrch Iron Works closed down

By 1881 = opening of the Cardiff Junction Dry Dock

1881 = Establishment of Penarth Yacht Club

1881 = Welsh Sunday Closing Act. Public Houses closed on Sundays

1881 = Dinas, Bertie, Trefor & Hafod (steam coal) Collieries, Rhondda opened

1881 = Prince of Wales Dock, Swansea built (largely on the site of Port Tennant)

28 June 1881 = birth of John Crichton-Stuart, eldest son of the 3rd Marquis of Bute, Lord Cardiff by Gwendolen Mary (Howard)

1882 = Bessemer Process came into use at Dowlais Ironworks.

1 May 1882 = opening of new Cardiff Free Library

1883 = Llantrisant & Cowbridge lost their Borough status

1883 = Founding of the University College of South Wales and Monmouthshire in Newport Rd., Cardiff

1883 = Elliot East Pit, New Tredegar established

1883 = North Transept of St.Margaret's Church, Roath converted into a mausoleum by the Marquis of Bute for his family.

1884 = Mwyndy Iron Mine, Llantrisant closed

1884 = Cardiff Corporation obtained powers to build reservoirs on the upper Taff , above Merthyr Tydfil

1884 = First Rugby International played at Cardiff Arms Park (Wales v Ireland)

14 August 1884 = Barry Dock & Railways Act received Royal Assent

1885 = Bute Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Co. incorporated in Cardiff

1885 = William Abraham (Mabon) elected first Member of Parliament for new Rhondda constituency

1885 = Swansea Working Men's Club & Institute, Alexandra Rd., Swansea built

1885 = Garw Colliery, Garw Valley opened

24 December 1885 = Disaster at Mardy Colliery killed 81 men

1886 = Severn Tunnel opened to allow direct rail connection between Cardiff/Newport/.Swansea and Bristol

1886 = Cardiff Exchange opened for stockbroking business

1886 = Lady Windsor Colliery, Ynysybwll opened

1886 = Swansea Central Library & College of Art, Alexandra Rd. built

1887 = Cardiff Iron & Tinplate Co. went into liquidation

1887 = Albion Colliery, Cilfynydd commenced production

1887 = Turner House Gallery, Penarth built to house the art collection of Major James Pyke Thompson

1888 = Melingriffith Works, Whitchurch bought by Richard Thomas. The Melingriffith Co.Ltd formed

1888 = Dowlais Iron Works set up at East Moors, Cardiff

1888 = Villiers Tinplate Works, Briton Ferry opened

1888 = Palace Theatre, Swansea built

1888/9 = Llanedeyrn Church renovated.

1889 = Welsh Intermediate Education Act. Start of secondary education in Wales

18 July 1889 = Official opening of Barry Dock

By 1890 = Mountstuart Shipbuilding, Graving Dock and Engineering Co, Cardiff. established

1890 = National Bank of Wales established in Cardiff

1890 = Establishment of Cardiff Technical School

1890 = Pit disaster at Morfa Colliery, Port Talbot killed 87 men

1890 = Pit disaster at Llanerch Colliery killed 176 men

1890 = Spillers & Co. amalgamated with William Baker & Son of Bristol to become Spillers & Bakers Ltd., Flour Mills

By 1891 = Barry Island started to be used as a holiday resort

1891 = Clydach Vale No 3 (steam coal) Colliery, Rhondda opened

1891 = Dowlais Works opened two furnaces at its Cardiff works for production of steel and plate

1891= Closure of Trecastle Iron Mine, Llanharry

1892 = Rhondda & Swansea Bay Railway constructed

1892 = Park Slip Colliery disaster killed 116 men

1892 = Gwalia Tinplate Works, Briton Ferry started.

1892 = Nantgwyn (steam coal) Colliery, Rhondda opened

1892 = The Vale of Glamorgan Agricultural Society replaced the Glamorgan Agricultural Society

26 August 1892 = Disaster at Park Slip Colliery, Aberkenfig killed 112 men

1893 = Dyffryn House, St.Nicholas built for Cory family

25 June 1894 = Disaster at Albion Colliery, Cilfynydd killed 290 men

1894 = Port Talbot Dock & Railway Co. formed to improve the docks and build railway connections to the collieries of the Western Valleys of Glamorgan

1894 = Llanbradach Colliery opened

1894 = Commencement of re-building of St.Mary's Church, Swansea (completed 1898)

1895 = First running of Welsh Grand National (horse race) at Ely, Cardiff

1895 = propsal to build a further dock at Cardiff (the Queen Alexandra Dock)

1896 = Cardiff Fine Art, Industrial and Maritime Exhibition

1896 = Merthyr Tydfil Old Town Hall built

1897 = Grand Theatre, Swansea opened

1897 = Swansea Technical College built

1897 = New General Post Office built in Westgate Street, Cardiff

14 December 1897 = Cardiff City Council bought Cathays Park from Marquis of Bute to establish the new Civic Centre

1898 = South Wales Miners Federation formed after defeat of miners in six-month lock-out

1898 = Port Talbot Docks constructed

1898 = Cardiff Tramway commenced operation

August 1899 = death of 3rd Marquis of Bute

1900 = New site at Cathays Park assigned to University College, Cardiff

1900 = Keir Hardy elected to Parliament as MP for Merthyr Tydfil. First Welsh Labour MP

1900 = Bertie, Trefor & Hafod Collieries, Trhafod consolidated to form the Lewis Merthyr Colliery

1900 = Amalgamation of Dowlais Iron Co. with Keen & Co. of Birmingham as Guest, Keen & Co.

1901 = Morgan Stuart Williams of Aberpergwm bought St.Donats Castle

1901 = Foundations laid for new Cardiff Town Hall in Cathays Park

24 May 1901 = Disaster at Senghenydd Colliery killed 82 men

1902 = Mond Nickel Co. Works, Clydach established

1902 = Swansea Infirmary, Mount Pleasant, Swansea built (completed 1904)

1902 = Amalgamation of Guest, Keen & Co. with Nettlefolds Ltd to form Guest, Keen & Nettlefolds (GKN)

1904/5 = spread of Religious Revival in Wales

5 July 1905 = Disaster at Wattstown Colliery killed 119 men

1905 = Wales defeated New Zealand All Blacks in rugby international in Cardiff

1905 = Cardiff declared a City and Cardiff City Hall opened in Cathays Park

1905 = Broughton Maltings (near Wick) converted into Welfare Hotel to provide holidays for coalminers

1906 = The Law Courts in Cathays Park, Cardiff opened

10 December 1906 = opening of the New Theatre, Cardiff

1907 = Port Talbot Steel Works established

1907 = Penallta Colliery, Gelligaer started (completed 1909) by Powell Duffryn Steam Coal Co.

1907 = Founding of the National Museum of Wales

1907 = Office of Prior of Wales of the Order of the Hospital of St.John created

1907 = King Edward VII Avenue in Cathays Park, Cardiff opened by the King

July 1907 = opening of the Queen Alexandra Dock, Cardiff by King Edward VII

1908 = South Wales Miners Federation affiliated to the Labour Party

1909 = spread of Independent Working Class Education Movement in South Wales

1909 = Kings Dock, Swansea built

1909 = Opening of University College of South Wales and Monmouthshire building in Cathays Park, Cardiff

1909 = Wyndham Park (or Glyn Cory Garden Village), Peterston-super-Ely established by Jon & Reginald Cory

1909 - commencement of construction of Glynn Vivian Art Gallery, Alexandra Rd., Swansea (completed 1911)

1910 = Garden Village begun at Fforest Fach, Swansea

1910 = Anthony (steam coal) Colliery, Rhondda opened

1910 = Gilfach Goch Garden Village started by Welsh Garden Cities Ltd. (completed 1914)

1910 = South Wales Cottage Exhibition arose from the Swansea Town Council decision to erect a new housing estate at Townhill, Swansea. They invited architects to erect prototype houses to a set of fixed prices. (now Mayhill Estate)

1910/11 = Cambrian Combine Dispute. Riots at Tonypandy

1912 = Glamorgan County Hall opened in Cathays Park, Cardiff

1912 = Opening of Cwm Colliery, Beddau (near Pontypridd)

1912 = Foundation stone laid for the National Museum of Wales Building in Cathays Park, Cardiff

1912 = National Miners Strike. Minimum wage level for miners introduced

1912 = Cefn Coed Hospital, Waunarlwyd Rd., Swansea commenced (completed 1929)

1912 = Commencement of building of Rhiwbina Garden Village by Cardiff Workers Co-operative Garden Village Society Ltd.(completed 1923)

By 1913 = 10.5 million tons of steam coal per year being exported from Cardiff which had become the largest coal exporting port in the world

By 1913 = 56.8 million tons of coal per year being mined in South Wales Coalfield

1913 = opening of Treforest School of Mines. The first mining management training school in Wales

1913 = 11 million tons of coal exported from Barry

1913 = Peak production of South Wales coalfield

1913 = Swansea Central Police Station built

1913 = over 15000 sailings by ships from Cardiff, Barry & Penarth

1913 = Swansea Exchange built

1913 = Swansea Electric Cinema (later the Carlton Cinema) built

1913 = Fernhill Garden Village, Abercwmboi started by subsidiary of Welsh Garden Cities Ltd.

14 October 1913 = Disaster at Universal Pit, Senghenydd killed 439 miners

27 October 1913 = Tornado did great damage in Cilfynydd, Abercynon & Edwardsville & to a lesser extent in the Rhondda & Rhymney Valleys

1914 = Building of Barry Garden Suburb commenced.

1915 = South Wales Miners Strike. New wage agreement.

1914 to 1918 = First World War - Cardiff dry docks used extensively for the maintenance of the country's shipping

1916 = Establishment of Cardiff Technical College

1916 = South Wales Coalfield taken over by the Government

1916 = Margam Steel Works established

1916 = Completion of the new Cardiff Technical College in Cathays Park

1918 = Labour Party won most South Wales Coalfield seats

1919 = Royal Commission on the Coal Industry recommended Nationalisation

1919 = Swansea Technical College admitted as a part of the University of Wales

1919 = Swansea Corporation purchased Singleton Abbey from 2nd Lord Swansea

1920 = Llandarcy Oil Refinery built at the mouth of the River Neath

1920 = Queens Dock, Swansea built largely for the oil refinery at Llandarcy

1921 = Coal Industry handed back to Coalowners. Miners defeated in lock-out. Wages reduced.

1922 = Caerphilly Miners Hospital established at Watford, Caerphilly

1922 = Railway Grouping - Great Western Railway took over Cardiff Railway, Taff Vale Railway, Barry Railway, Rhymney Railway, Brecon & Merthyr Tydfil Junction Railway, Neath & Brecon railway.

1922 = Llandaff, Llanishen & Lisvane brought within the boundaries of Cardiff

1924 = White Bros. Started to develop Barry Island Fairground

1923 = Singleton Abbey, Swansea became the Administrative HQ of University College, Swansea

1925 = William Randolph Hearst bought St.Donats Castle and set about "modernising" it

1925 = Royal Commission on the Coal Industry

1926 = General Strike. Miners' lock-out. Defeat of miners; reduced wages and longer working hours

1926 = Llwyn-onn Reservoir, Cefn Coed y Cymmer (near Merthyr Tydfil) opened, providing water to Cardiff

1926 = Cefn Coed Colliery, Crynant opened

1927 = First hunger march from South Wales

1927 = Opening of the National Museum of Wales, Cathays Park, Cardiff by King George V

1928 = Welsh National War Memorial, Alexandra Gardens, Cardiff opened by Prince of Wales

1930 = Amagamation of GKN with Baldwins Ltd to form Guest, Keen & Baldwins Iron & Steel Co.

1930 = Mass unemployment in South Wales Coalfield. Substantial emigration from the area.

1930 = Steel making ended at Dowlais Works, Merthyr Tydfil

1932 = Commencement of construction of new Guildhall at Swansea (completed 1936)

1933 = Frank Brangwyn's five panel pantings symbolising the beauty of Greater Britain originally painted for the House of Lords to commemorate Peers who had died in the First World War were hung in the new Swansea Guldhall

1934 = Opening of Llandough Hospital at Llandough-juxta-Penarth

1935 = GKN transferred rolling mills and finishing dept. from Rogerstone, Newport, Mon to Cardiff

1937 = Rumney became part of Cardiff

1938 = Opening of the Temple of Peace and Health in Cathays Park, Cardiff

1938 = Opening of the Welsh Board of Health Office in Cathays Park, Cardiff

1939 = Horse Racing ended at Ely Racecourse, Cardiff

1941 = Swansea severely hit by German bombing. St.Mary's Church destroyed.

1941 = Llandaff Cathedral destroyed by enemy bomb

1944 = National Union of Mineworkers formed

1946 = Hoover Factory built at Abercanaid, Merthyr Tydfil (completed 1948)

1947 = Nationalisation of coal industry. National Coal Board (NCB) set up.

25 April 1947 = death of 4th Marquis of Bute

September 1947 = 5th Marquis of Bute gave Cardiff Castle and its estate to the city.

1948 = Opening of Welsh Folk Museum at St.Fagans Castle

1948 = Commencement of building of Abbey Steel Works, Port Talbot & reconstruction of Margam Works.

1950 = Establishment by GKN of new wire rod mill at Tremorfa, Cardiff

1950 = Part of St.Melons incorporated within Cardiff

1952 = Velindre Tinplate Works, Llangyfelach built (completed 1956)

1954 = St.Mary's Church, Swansea re-built (completed 1959)

1955 = Cardiff became, by Royal Decree, Capital City of Wales

1955 = Widespread pit closures in South Wales

14 August 1956 = death of 5th Marquis of Bute

1957 = closure of Melingriffith Works, Whitchurch

1957 = Llandaff Cathedral re-opened

1958 = British Empire & Commonwealth Games held at Cardiff

1960 = Final closure of Swansea & Mumbles Railway (first paying passenger line in the world)

1961 = First stage of Singleton Hospital, Swansea completed

1961 = Opening of Cardiff College of Advanced Technology in Cathays Park

1962 = Atlantic College established at St.Donats Castle

1962 = Coal ceased to be expoted from Port Talbot Docks but the import of iron ore had already supplanted it as the main trade through the port

1962 = New wire nail manufacturing unit added to GKN's Tremorfa Works, Cardiff

1963 = Severe snow storms in Glamorgan

21 Oct 1966 = 144 died in Aberfan as coal tip buried the school

1967 = Royal Mint relocated from London to Llantrisant

1972 = National Miners' Strike

1972 = New deep water tidal harbour established at Port Talbot for the unloading of iron ore for the Port Talbot steel works

1976 = Severe drought

1984/5 = Miners' strike against pit closures defeated

1987 = Severe winds caused great deal of damage in South Wales